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Growing onions for feathers in a greenhouse in winter can be used as an idea for a business or for your own needs. To obtain a good harvest, the necessary conditions are provided, equipment and planting material are purchased.
Conditions for growing onions in a greenhouse
You can ensure the active growth of onions if a number of conditions are met:
- daytime temperature - from +18 to + 20 ° С;
- temperature at night - from +12 to + 15 ° С;
- daylight hours - 12 hours;
- regular watering;
- frequent ventilation.
To maintain the necessary conditions, you should purchase certain equipment for the greenhouse. Its construction is made of wood or metal frame.
A more affordable option is a wooden frame, however, before installation, its surface must be treated to prevent deformation. The metal frame is coated with an anti-corrosion primer or painted.
Glass, film or polycarbonate is used as a coating. Polycarbonate is considered more reliable, capable of maintaining the required temperature regime.
Purchase of shelving
It is most convenient to grow onions in special shelves. They can be placed in several rows and thereby increase the yield.
The width of the shelves should be up to 35 cm. The soil warms up faster in them, which shortens the period of feather germination. It is much more convenient to work with shelves, since you do not need to bend over to the beds with plantings.
Installation of luminaires
It is possible to provide the required level of illumination with the help of vertical lamps. It is best to use fluorescent lamps that are specially designed to illuminate plants. Their power is 15-58 watts.
It is allowed to use LED lamps or strips. If lamps with a power of 20-25 W are used, then they are placed every 1.2 m.
Advice! If multi-level shelving is used, then separate lighting is required for each level.
It is best to put the greenhouse in a sunny area in order to save on backlighting. However, additional lighting is indispensable due to the short daylight hours in winter.
Watering and heating
A prerequisite for deciding how to grow onions is timely watering of the plantings. For this, warm water is used, which has settled in barrels.
Advice! It is possible to provide the required level of moisture due to the drip irrigation system.
Heating devices are used to maintain the required temperature inside the greenhouse. One of the options is to equip the premises with electric or gas boilers. Their pipes are placed evenly around the perimeter of the greenhouse.
You can also install stove heating or electric heaters in the greenhouse. Ventilation is provided with vents. It is best to open them during thaws.
Choosing onions for planting
For growing green onions in a greenhouse in winter, the following types of onions are chosen:
- Onion. It has been planted in greenhouses since March, and frost-resistant varieties are chosen. Boxes measuring 40x60 cm are prepared for planting.If necessary, they can be quickly moved to a new place.
- Slime onion. Differs in high taste and frost resistance. The plant is demanding on the level of moisture, so you need to constantly monitor the moisture content of the soil.
- Batun onion. This is one of the most unpretentious types of onion, capable of germinating at any length of daylight hours. It is grown in a greenhouse at any time of the year, and the forcing time is 2-4 weeks. After a month, his feathers become tough and bitter.
- Shallot. This crop is especially demanding on moisture and fertilization. It is not recommended to grow it several times in a row on the same soil.
- Multi-tiered bow. The plant got its name due to the formation of bulbs at the ends of the feathers, which give new greens. Tiered onions do not have a dormant period and germinate at any time of the year. This variety is especially appreciated for its frost resistance and early ripening.
- Leek. This type of onion is grown from seeds. The plant does not form a large bulb. For planting onions in a greenhouse, early ripening varieties are chosen, which are considered the most productive.
Preparation of planting material
How to grow an onion depends a lot on its variety. It is most convenient to plant bulbs as this method requires a minimum of effort. When using seeds, the period required for growing is increased. The seedling method involves transferring the shoots obtained at home to the greenhouse.
This method is not in demand as it takes a lot of time. For planting, take young seeds, the age of which is less than 2 years.
Seed germination can be estimated preliminary. First, 20 seeds are selected and wrapped in a damp cloth. If more than 80% has risen, then such material can be used for planting in the ground.
Advice! Before planting, the seeds are immersed in water at room temperature for 20 hours. It needs to be changed three times.
Then the seeds must be treated with a 1% manganese solution. The planting material is placed in the prepared solution for 45 minutes.
The Epin solution will help to improve germination. 2 drops of the drug are added to 100 ml of water, after which the seeds are immersed in the solution for 18 hours. At the same time, the ambient temperature should remain 25-30 ° C.
After processing, the seeds are planted in the greenhouse. For this, grooves are made in the ground with a depth of 1-1.5 cm.
Leeks are grown in seedlings. The first shoots are obtained at home. Seeds are planted in containers, watered and covered with foil. You can plant seeds for seedlings in peat pots.
Advice! Over the next week, you need to ensure a certain temperature regime: about + 16 ° С during the day and + 13 ° С at night.
After the sprouts appear, the containers are moved to the windowsill. For active growth, onions require an increased daytime temperature: + 17 ... + 21 ° С. Every two weeks, onions are fed with compost. The leaves of the seedlings must be trimmed so that no more than 10 cm is left.
When the onion grows up, it is thinned out and transferred to a permanent place in the greenhouse. Planting is carried out when the sprouts reach a length of 15 cm.
The most effective method is to plant the bulbs directly in the soil of the greenhouse. First you need to select the planting material. Small bulbs are suitable for planting.
It is possible to increase the yield of onions by warming up the planting material. During the day, it is kept at a temperature of + 40 ° C.
Then, with garden scissors, you need to cut off the neck of each bulb. This will give the plant access to oxygen and accelerate feather growth.
Onions prefer sandy soil that is fertilized with humus and peat. It is recommended to dig up the soil before planting.
Fertilizers are required. Their number per square meter is:
- compost - 1 bucket;
- sodium chloride - 15 g;
- superphosphate - 30 g.
If garden soil is taken, then crop rotation must be taken into account. For onions, the optimal predecessors are eggplants, beets, tomatoes, and carrots.
Important! The soil can be used for forcing onions 3-4 times.
Instead of soil, you can use small sawdust for planting onions. They are lightweight, retain moisture well and do not require replacement.
A layer of sawdust is poured onto the racks or beds, ash and ammonium nitrate are poured on top. Due to ash, the wood material is deoxidized, while saltpeter saturates the bulbs with nitrogen. In this case, additional feeding is not applied.
You can plant onions on a feather in a greenhouse any time from October to April. If the necessary conditions are met, green feathers can be harvested in 20-30 days. The next lots are planted after 10-14 days, which will ensure uninterrupted harvesting.
There are several ways to plant onions in a greenhouse or greenhouse. For planting in the ground, choose a pavement or tape method. You can choose the hydroponic method and get a good harvest without using land.
With the bridge method, the bulbs are planted close to each other so that there is no free space. This method allows you to significantly save time and effort, since there is no need to dig beds, mulch the soil and weed weeds.
Important! The bulbs are lightly pressed into the soil, this is enough for their further germination.
It is convenient to plant bulbs in boxes or on racks using the bridge method. You first need to fertilize the soil. For each square meter of such beds, about 10 kg of planting material is required.
With the belt planting method, onions are placed in prepared furrows in a greenhouse before winter. Leave up to 3 cm between the bulbs, and 20 cm between the rows.
The belt method can be used to plant not only bulbs, but also seeds. When using seed, seedlings must be thinned out.
For growing onions in hydroponics, you need to purchase special installations. These include containers that are filled with water, a lid with onion holes, and a spray compressor.
You can make such an installation yourself. The optimal tank size for growing onions is 40x80 cm.The height of such a tank is 20 cm.
During root germination, the water temperature is maintained at 20 ° C. To stimulate feather growth, the temperature is raised to 25 ° C. The required performance can be achieved with a heater for the aquarium.
Important! Hydroponics allows you to get onion feathers in the winter in a greenhouse after 2 weeks.
The lid should fit snugly against the tank to prevent light from entering the onion root system. Bubbling with a compressor is carried out for 6-12 hours.
Growing on mats
Another option is to grow onions in a greenhouse on special mats that are impregnated with fertilizer. The bulbs are placed tightly to each other.
First, the onion mats are left in a cool, dark place. In the greenhouse, you can cover them with a cloth. After 10 days, when the roots germinate, the plants are provided with the necessary temperature and light indicators. Periodically, the mats are watered with fertilizer intended for hydroponics.
One part of the process of growing green onions in a greenhouse is providing proper care. This includes the following activities:
- Water the onions abundantly immediately after planting. To form the root system, you need to maintain a temperature of 20 ° C.
- After two weeks, planting is watered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. This treatment avoids the spread of mold, diseases and pests.
- The next day, you need to remove dry, rotten and weak bulbs that are unable to give a good harvest. The temperature in the greenhouse must be increased to 23 ° C.
- Periodically, the greenhouse room is ventilated without creating drafts.
- Greenhouse onions are watered every week with warm water.
During the forcing process, onions do not require additional feeding, since all the necessary fertilizers have already been applied to the soil. Additional fertilization is necessary in cases where pale and thin feathers appear.
Advice! The onion is fed by spraying it with a urea solution (15 g per 10 l of water). After feeding, the planting is watered with clean water.
To make the onion grow faster, it is fed every 10 days. The last treatment is done 10 days before the harvest. For these purposes, the fertilizers "Vermistim", "Gumisol" and others are used.
The crop is harvested when the feathers have reached 35 cm. For sale, onions are packed in 50 g each and wrapped in cling film.
Onions are considered an unpretentious crop that produces green feathers even in the absence of ideal conditions. In winter, you can grow various types of onions that do not have a dormant period. To maintain the required microclimate in the greenhouse, they equip lighting, an irrigation and heating system.
In winter, the easiest way to plant the bulbs is to speed up the feathering period. First, the planting material is processed to speed up the forcing of onions. Planting is done in prepared soil, sawdust or a hydroponic system. Onions are watered regularly and, if necessary, fed.
The process of growing onions in a greenhouse is described in the video: