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Bush clematis is no less a picturesque garden plant than spectacular climbing varieties. Low-growing, undemanding species are suitable for growing in a temperate climatic zone. Shrub clematis decorate the garden with flowering from mid-summer to autumn.
Description of bush clematis
A herbaceous perennial bush of these numerous species of clematis rises from 45 to 100 cm, feeds on filamentous roots, which branch off in a bundle from the central trunk. Hybrid plants are larger, reaching 2 m, but young flexible shoots look like thin stems of grass, require support and a garter. In some varieties of low-growing bush clematis, the leaves are elongated, ovate, with a pointed tip, located oppositely on the stem. On other bush species, leaf blades of various shapes grow.
On the shoots, 7-10 single drooping flowers are formed in the form of a bell, consisting of individual petals. The diameter of the flower is from 2 to 5 cm, in hybrid forms - up to 25 cm. The color and number of petals varies from species and varieties of bush clematis: from 4 to 6 - white, purple, pink, blue. Corollas of clematis bloom from the end of June, the duration of flowering is up to a month, but some varieties continue to bloom until September. In the fall, most bush species have very decorative fluffy seedlings. Plants winter well in the middle lane and in the Urals.
Among the bush clematis, the most famous are:
- straight with white small flowers;
- shrubby lobed and others.
Bush clematis are also called clematis, which reflects the definition of the genus of plants. Another name, princes, is rather erroneous, since in botany it means a completely different type of vines from the clematis genus.
Attention! Shrub clematis are unpretentious and winter-hardy: the plants are popular in the middle lane, in the Urals and in Siberia, where they endure winters without shelter.
Varieties of bush clematis
The most common bush species is solid-leaved clematis. Several dozen varieties are grown in the temperate zone. Often, nursery staff sell them, adding to the name of a particular bush variety and the Latin species definition: Integrifolia (integrifolia) - whole-leaved. Other species are found in amateur gardens.
One of the most impressive bush clematis with touching beauty, judging by the photo and description. Shoots grow up to 2 m, they are tied up or directed to some shrub, they are also formed as a ground cover. In complex odd-pinnate leaves up to 5-7 lobules. The size of clematis flowers, consisting of 4-6 mauve, bent outward sepals - up to 5-6 cm. Grows in the sun and in the shade.
A shrub plant of the Jan Fopma whole-leaved species reaches 1.8-2 m, the shoots do not cling, they are tied to a support. Flowers up to 5-6 cm, consist of pinkish sepals with a bright light pink, almost white border, and a lush white center. Bush clematis blooms from late May to late August.
Whole-leaved clematis bush Hakuree grows up to 80-100 cm. The plant is supported by shoots on a low trellis. Bell-shaped flowers are white on the outside, blooming from late June to autumn. The wavy sepals-petals are light purple on the inside, curling in an original way.
White bush clematis Alba of the Integrifolia species is undersized, only 50-80 cm in height. Flowers 4-5 cm, bloom from the twenties of June to the end of August. Heavy rains reduce the decorative effect of the delicate corolla of bush clematis.
Small-flowered shrub clematis Blue Rain Integrifolia can expel shoots up to 2 m, which must be tied up. Blooms profusely from mid-summer to early fall. The bell-shaped corolla of four petals of purple-blue bright color reaches a length of 4 cm.
Clematis bush white small-flowered bears the specific definition - straight (Recta). The root system of this very picturesque species is pivotal; it develops better in slightly acidic soil. Stems are thin, up to 1.5, sometimes 3 m, they are tied up or allowed on a low fence. The flowers are small, up to 2-3 cm - graceful, with a white corolla of 4-5 petals, resemble a myriad of stars on a bush.
Straight Purpurea white-flowered
This shrub clematis, as in the photo of the Recta Purpurea variety, has the same small white flowers as the original plant, but the leaves are purple in color. A spectacular bush is planted near fences, directing and tying up the shoots.
A tall, bushy variety of clematis of the Tangutsky species with feathery graceful leaves. Sometimes the name sounds like Love Locator. The original low-growing plant, originally from China and Central Asia, fell in love with gardeners with bright yellow bell flowers. Hybrids reach up to 2.5-3.7 m, are also colored cream or orange.
Clematis brown Isabelle
There is a bushy species from the Far East, it grows up to 1.4-1.9 m. Curved sepals-petals of an unusual brown shade, but an exquisite goblet shape, create a flower up to 2.5 cm in diameter. Blooms in the fourth year after planting.
A compact and exquisitely fragrant variety of Clematis heracleifolia New Love is a low highly decorative plant, 60-70 cm. It has large wavy leaves with carved edges. On the peduncle protruding above the foliage, there are several graceful 4-petal tubular flowers of blue-violet color, reminiscent of hyacinth. Corolla diameter - 2-4 cm, length 3 cm. It blooms in the second half of summer, the seeds do not have time to ripen before frost. The variety is used for curbs, rabatok.
Warning! According to the observations of gardeners, after especially harsh winters, bush clematis may not wake up in the spring, but they show sprouts after a year or even two.
Planting and caring for bush clematis
Herbaceous shrubs are unpretentious, winter-hardy. Low clematis are planted in spring in regions with a harsh climate, in the south - in autumn.
Selection and preparation of the landing site
Most bush clematis develop well and bloom in sunny and semi-shady areas. Six months before planting, the soil is dug up, mixing for 1 sq. m garden land with a bucket of compost or humus, 400 g of dolomite flour, 150 g of superphosphate.
When buying a bush, make sure that the buds are visible on the shoots in the spring. The root system of clematis is voluminous, not less than 30-40 cm. Filiform roots should be elastic, without damage. If the species has a taproot, many small processes extend from the central trunk. Before planting, the roots are soaked in a growth stimulator, following the instructions.
When planting several bushes, holes 40x40x50 cm in size are dug every 1.5 m. 5-9 cm of drainage material is laid on the bottom. Add to a substrate of 2 parts of garden soil:
- 1 part sand if the soils are heavy;
- 2 parts humus or compost;
- 0.8-1 l of wood ash;
- 80-120 g of complex fertilizer, where all three macronutrients are present - nitrogen, potassium, superphosphate.
An approximate algorithm for planting bush clematis in the spring:
- a seedling is placed on a substrate formed by a mound, straightening all the roots;
- a support is driven in next to, 0.8-2 m high, guided by the announced size of the bush clematis;
- sprinkle with soil only the roots, leaving the hole not filled to the brim;
- make sure that the growth point is above the level of the garden soil;
- water and fill the hole with peat or mulch.
As the shoots appear, the hole is gradually covered with soil. Such a technique when planting clematis will allow the shrub to develop shoots more abundantly. When planting a flower in the fall, the hole is filled with soil at ground level, but then in the spring a layer of up to 10 cm is carefully removed, mulching the recess. By autumn, the hole is gradually covered with soil, as the shoots grow.
Watering and feeding
After planting, bush clematis is watered every other day, 2-3 liters, focusing on the amount of natural precipitation. Adult plants are watered once a week - 7-12 liters, depending on the size. Watering is especially important in the bud formation and flowering phase.
The number of flowers and the duration of flowering depends on the amount of nutrients in the soil, which are regularly replenished - after 16-20 days:
- in the spring, 20 g of ammonium nitrate or 5 g of urea is dissolved in 10 liters of water and the plants are poured in half a bucket;
- the next feeding consists of 100 g of mullein infusion or 70 g of bird droppings infusion per 1-1.5 liters of water;
- during flowering, bush clematis are supported with a solution of potassium sulfate or complex mineral preparations for flowering plants, alternating with organic matter.
Important! A month and a half before the autumn pruning, the application of nitrogen fertilizers is stopped.
Mulching and loosening
After watering, the soil around the bush is loosened, weed sprouts are removed. If necessary, the hole is covered with earth. Then the entire surface around the stems is mulched:
- chopped straw;
- rotted sawdust;
- dry grass without seed bolls.
The clematis bush is formed from the beginning of growth:
- in the first year, pinch the tops of the shoots to form new buds;
- also in the first season, half of the buds are plucked, giving the roots the opportunity to develop;
- long-stemmed clematis are pruned in summer to guide their growth.
Preparing for winter
In September-October, in the regions, water charging is carried out - up to 20 liters per bush. A week later, the stems are cut at a height of 10-15 cm from the ground. Some bush clematis recommend cutting off completely. Cover with leaves or peat from above.
Most types of bush clematis are bred:
- dividing the bush;
For layering, the extreme shoots are placed in a previously prepared groove, bringing out 10-16 cm of the tops above the ground. From the nodes sprinkled with soil, shoots appear after 20-30 days. All this time, the soil above the stem is watered, a solution of the mineral complex is added once. The sprouts are replanted the next year.
Cuttings are taken from the shoots of a 3-year-old bush before flowering. After processing with a growth stimulant, the segments are rooted in a mixture of sand and peat. A mini-greenhouse is installed on top. The sprouts are planted after a year, leaving them well covered in the street for the winter.
The bush is divided at the age of 5-6 years, transplanted into ready-made holes.
Some types of clematis are propagated by seeds that sprout up to 2 months. The seeds are first soaked in water for 6-8 days, changing the solution 3-4 times a day. Seedlings of bush clematis appear in 40-58 days. A month later, they are seated in pots, and then in May they are transferred to the garden - to the school. A permanent place is determined in the next season.
Diseases and pests
In damp, cool or warm weather, plants can become infected with gray rot, powdery mildew, and rust. Diseases appear with brown, whitish or orange spots on the leaves. A plant with signs of gray rot is removed, and others that grow nearby are treated with fungicides. Other fungal diseases are treated with copper sprays:
- from powdery mildew, copper sulfate, "Topaz", "Azocene", "Fundazol" are used;
- for rust use "Polychom", "Oxyhom", Bordeaux liquid.
Clematis is damaged by slugs that eat young shoots, and aphids, which suck juice from the leaves:
- slugs are collected by hand or special traps and preparations are used;
- aphid colonies are sprayed with a soda-soap solution.
They destroy the nests of ants in the garden that carry aphids, or move the ant colony to another place.
Bush clematis is an interesting element of garden compositions. Low-growing bushes are used as decor for roses, flowering vines, as a living curtain for the lower part of buildings and fences. Different species can serve as colorful ground covers.